تأثیر زمان و میزان کاهش تراکم‌ بوته بر عملکرد کمی و کیفی چغندرقند

نویسندگان

1 مؤسسه تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه بذر چغندرقند، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشارزی، کرج، ایران

2 وزارت جهاد کشاورزی، تهران

چکیده

تراکم بوته عامل مهم و مؤثری بر عملکرد و کیفیت محصول ریشه چغندرقند محسوب می‌شود. به‌دلیل اهمیت زمان ایجاد تراکم استاندارد در مزرعه و ارزیابی نحوه تأثیر تغییرات زمان و شدت کاهش تراکم بوته در طول فصل رشد روی عملکرد کمی و کیفی چغندرقند رقم دورتی (Doretti) در دو سال 1390 و 1391 در کرج، این آزمایش به شکل فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در چهار تکرار اجرا شد. عوامل موردآزمایش شامل زمان کاهش تراکم‌بوته (در چهار سطح 30، 60، 90 و 120 روز پس از کاشت) و سطوح نهایی تراکم بوته (در شش سطح 5/12، 375/9، 375/8، 25/6، 125/4 و 125/3 بوته در مترمربع) بودند. نتایج آزمایش نشان داد که زمان کاهش تراکم‌بوته عمدتاً روی محصول تولیدشده در هر بوته اثر معنی‌داری داشت و بیشترین عملکرد ریشه (53/1-49/1 کیلوگرم در بوته) و شکر خام (21/0-20/0 کیلوگرم در بوته) با کاهش تراکم‌بوته طی 60-30 روز پس از کاشت حاصل شد. بیشترین عملکرد در بوته (92/1-74/1 کیلوگرم ریشه و 26/0-24/0 کیلوگرم شکرخام) و در واحد سطح (54/95-81/89 تُن ریشه در هکتار و 97/12-06/12 تُن شکر خام در هکتار) به‌ترتیب برای تراکم 5/4-4/3 و 2/10-7/7 بوته در مترمربع حاصل شد. در مجموع، کاهش تعداد بوته طی 60-30 روز پس از کاشت و ایجاد تراکم معادل 5/12-4/8 بوته در مترمربع متضمن دستیابی به حداکثر عملکرد محصول در مناطق آب و هوایی معتدل (مشابه کرج) بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of Plant Population Reduction Time and Rate on Sugar Beet Yield and Quality

نویسندگان [English]

  • S. Sadeghzadeh Hemayati 1
  • M. Khodagoo Abianeh 2
  • P. Fasahat 1
1 Sugar Beet Seed Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran.
2 Ministry of Agriculture Jihad, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Plant population is an essential factor affecting yield and quality of sugar beet. To determine the effects of plant polpulation reduction time and rate during the growing season on quantitative and qualitative yield of sugar beet in 2011 and 2012, a factorial experiment based on a randomized complete blocks design (RCBD) with four replications was conducted in Karaj. The studied factors included density reduction time (at four levels of 30, 60, 90 and 120 days after sowing) and final density levels (at six levels of 12.5, 9.375, 8.375, 6.25, 4.125, and 3.125 plantm-2). Results showed that plant population reduction time significantly affected the crop produced by the plants in most cases and the highest root yield (1.49-1.53 kgplant-1) and crude sugar yield (0.20-0.21 kgplant-1) was obtained by plant reduction during 30-60 days after sowing. The highest yield per plant (1.74-1.92 kg root and 0.24-0.26 kg sugar) and per unit area (89.81-95.54t oot per ha and 12.06-12.97t sugar per ha) was obtained from the densities of 3.4-4.5 and 7.7-10.2 plantm-2, respectively. Overall, reduction time during 30-60 days after sowing and reaching to the plant population of 8.4-12.5 plantm-2 after reduction would ensure the maximum crop yield in moderate regions, Iran (like Karaj).

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • sugar beet
  • plant density
  • plant reduction time
  • yield
  • crude suar

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