اثر کشت تأخیری بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد دانه ارقام زمستانه کلزا (Brassica napus L.) در شرایط آبیاری بهینه و تنش خشکی آخر فصل

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه یاسوج و عضو هیئت علمی بخش تحقیقات علوم زراعی و باغی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان فارس، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، شیراز، ایران

2 گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات. دانشکده کشاورزی. دانشگاه یاسوج. یاسوج. ایران

3 دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه یاسوج، یاسوج، ایران

4 مؤسسه تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه نهال و بذر، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرج، ایران

چکیده

به منظور ارزیابی اثر کشت تأخیری بر عملکرد دانه، اجزاء عملکرد و برخی خصوصیات زراعی ارقام زمستانه کلزا تحت شرایط آبیاری و تنش خشکی آخر فصل دو آزمایش جداگانه شامل آبیاری تا پایان فصل رشد و قطع آبیاری از مرحله نمو خورجین‌ها تا پایان دوره رشد با دو رقم آزادگرده‌افشان (طلایه و اکاپی) و دو هیبرید (نپتون و الویس) در سه تاریخ‌کاشت 15 مهر (تاریخ‌کاشت بهینه)، 25 مهر و 5 آبان (تاریخ کشت‌های تأخیری) بصورت آزمایش کرت‌های یک‌بار خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار در سال‌های زراعی 95-1393 در ایستگاه تحقیقات کشاورزی زرقان، مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان فارس اجرا شد. تاریخ‌های‌کاشت بعنوان کرت‌های اصلی و ارقام بعنوان کرت‌های فرعی بودند. نتایج بیانگر اثر معنی‌دار آبیاری و رقم بر کلیه صفات و همچنین اثر معنی‌دار تاریخ کاشت بر تمام صفات بجز وزن هزار دانه و تعداد دانه در خورجین بود. قطع آبیاری از مرحله نمو خورجین باعث‌کاهش ارتفاع بوته، روز تا رسیدگی، عملکرد و اجزاء عملکرد دانه گردید که میزان کاهش عملکرد دانه ناشی از قطع آبیاری در مرحله نمو خورجین و تأخیر در کاشت به ترتیب 9/23 و 4/18 درصد بود. کاهش 2/17 درصدی تعداد دانه در خورجین ناشی از تنش خشکی و 2/16 درصدی تعداد خورجین در گیاه ناشی از تأخیر در کاشت از دیگر عوامل موثر در کاهش عملکرد دانه بودند. نتایج همچنین نشان داد تاثیر منفی قطع آبیاری بر عملکرد دانه و شاخص برداشت بسیار بیشتر از تأخیر در کاشت بود. رقم طلایه (دارای برتری عملکرد دانه در تمام شرایط) به عنوان اولین گزینه انتخابی در شرایط مشابه توصیه می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Delayed Planting on Seed Yield and Its Components of Winter Rapseed (Brassica napus L.) Cultivars Under Optimum Irrigation and Terminal Drought Stress Conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • H. R. Khademhamzeh 1
  • A. yadavi 2
  • M. Movahhadi Dehnavi 3
  • A. H. Shirani Rad 4
1 Faculty of Agriculture, University of Yasouj, and Faculty Member of Field and Horticultural Crops ResearchDepartment, Fars Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization, Shiraz, Iran
2 Agronomy Department, Agricultural faculty, Yasouj University, Yasouj, Iran
3 Faculty of Agricultural, University of Yasouj, Yasouj, Iran
4 Seed and Plant Improvement Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization, Karaj, Iran.
چکیده [English]

To evaluate the effect of delayed planting and irrigation regimes on yield, yield components and some agronomic traits of winter rapeseed varieties, two separate field experiments (I: optimum irrigation and II: terminal drought) carried out as split plot arrangements in randomized complete block design with three replications in 2014-2016 cropping seasons at Zarghan field station, Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center of Fars, Iran. In each experiment three planting dates (07, 17 and 27 October) and four winter rapeseed varieties; two open pollinated cultivars (Talayeh and Okapi) and two hybrids (Neptune and Elvis)) were assigned to main plot and randomized in subplot, respectively. The results indicated significant effect of irrigation and variety on all traits.The effect of planting date was significant on all traits except 1000 seed weight and number of seed per pod. Terminal drought decreased plant height, days to maturity, seed yield and yield components. The decrease in seed yield by terminal drought and delayed planting was 23.9 and 18.4%, respectively. The reduction of 17.2% of seed no. per pod by terminal drought stress and 16.2% of pods per plant by delayed planting caused yield reduction. The results also showed that the effect of terminal drought stress on seed yield and harvest index was much higher than the delay in planting. Tallayeh which maintained seed yield superiority under different conditions can be recommended as the suitable variety for similar growing conditions.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Rapeseed
  • harvest index
  • 1000 seed weight
  • open pollinated

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