ارزیابی امکان تعدیل اثر منفی تنش محدودیت آبی بر رشد و عملکرد سیب‌زمینی (Solanum tuberosum L.) با تغییر تاریخ کاشت

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شیراز، شیراز، ایران

2 دانشیار، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شیراز، شیراز، ایران

3 استاد، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شیراز، شیراز، ایران

چکیده

به‌منظور مطالعه اثر محدودیت آبی و تاریخ کاشت بر عملکرد و روند رشد سیب‌زمینی رقم سانته در طول فصل، این پژوهش به‌صورت کرت‌های خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکراردر سال‌های 94-1393 و 95-1394 در دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه شیراز اجرا شد. چهار سطح آبیاری شامل 55، 70، 85 و 100 درصد نیاز آبی گیاه در کرت‌های اصلی و سه تاریخ کاشت 20 اسفند،20 فروردین و 20 اردیبهشت در کرت‌های فرعی تصادفی شدند. تجزیه واریانس داده‌ها نشان داد اثر آبیاری بر کلیه صفات، بجز شاخص برداشت، اثر تاریخ کشت و برهمکنش آبیاری × تاریخ کشت نیز بر کلیه صفات معنی‌دار بود. نتایج نشان داد که تا 48 روز پس از کاشت، ارتفاع بوته و وزن خشک شاخساره افزایش کندی داشت، ولی در فاصله بین 48 تا 104 روز پس از کاشت افزایش قابل‌توجهی در این دو صفت مشاهده شد. در اوایل فصل رشد ارتفاع بوته و وزن خشک شاخساره در تاریخ کاشت 20 اسفند اندکی کمتر از سایر تاریخ‌های کاشت بود، ولی با گذشت زمان و در تاریخ کاشت 20 اسفند مقدار این دو صفت به‌طور معنی‌داری بیشتر شد. تنش محدودیت آبی باعث کاهش شاخص سطح برگ، تعداد غده در مترمربع، عملکرد غده، عملکرد بیولوژیک و وزن غده‌های بذری و درشت و افزایش وزن غده‌های ریز گردید. در خصوص بیشتر صفات، سطح آبیاری 100 با 85 درصد نیاز آبی تفاوت معنی‌داری نداشت. در شرایط تنش محدویت آبی، اهمیت تاریخ کاشت بیشتر بود، چنانچه در شرایط بدون تنش تفاوت معنی‌داری بین تاریخ‌های کاشت وجود نداشت یا حداقل بود. در حالیکه در شرایط تنش آبی رشد و عملکرد بوته‌های سیب‌زمینی در تاریخ کاشت 20 اسفند بیشتر بود. به‌طورکلی، نتایج نشان داد که به‌دلیل استفاده بهتر از نزولات جوی، دمای پایین‌تر و تبخیر کمتر در اوایل فصل رشد و دمای مناسب‌تر در زمان غده‌زایی، عملکرد سیب‌زمینی حاصل از تاریخ کشت 20 اسفند بویژه در شرایط تنش محدویت آبی افزایش یافت.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Assesment of Possibility of Mitigating the Adverse Effect of Water Limitation Stress on Growth and Yield of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) by Changing Planting Date

نویسندگان [English]

  • Alireza Yazdani 1
  • Seyed Abdolreza Kazemeini 2
  • Hossein Ghadiri 3
  • Ali Akbar Kamgar Haghighi 3
  • M. Edalat 2
1 Ph. D. Student, Faculty of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.
2 Associate Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.
3 Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
چکیده [English]

This field experiment was conducted to study the effects of water limitation stress and planting dates on growth and yield of potato in 2014-15 and 2015-16 growing seasons at Faculty of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran. Experimental treatments included, four irrigation levels: 55%, 70%, 85% and 100% of water requirement of potato assigned to the main plots, and three planting dates: March 11, April 9 and May 10 randomized in the sup plots as split plot arrangement in randomized complete block design with three replications. The results showed that plant height and shoot dry weight had a slow growth until 48 days after planting (DAP), however, these two traits considerably increased between 48-104 DAP. At early growth stage, plant height and shoot dry weight was slightly less in March 11 planting as compared with other planting dates, while these two traits were greater in March 11 planting. Water limitation stress reduced plant height, leaf area index, tuber number m-2, tuber yield, biological yield and weight of seed and large tubers weight and increased small tuber weight. There was no significant difference between 100% and 85% of water requirement levels for most of measured traits. In water stress conditions planting date was more important. In 100% water requirement level there was no significant differences between planting dates. Whereas, in stressed conditions, growth and tuber yield of potato were greater in March 11 planting. In conclusion, the results indicated that potato performance was greater in March 11 planting date, particularly in water limited stress conditions, because of better use of precipitation, cooler temperature and lower evaporation in the early season as well as suitable temperature during tuber initation.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Potato
  • Water requirement
  • leaf area index
  • seed tuber
  • tuber yield

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