ارزیابی تحمل به تنش سرما و برخی خصوصیات زراعی لاین‌های امیدبخش گندم نان

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی سابق کارشناسی ارشد، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحدکرج، کرج، ایران

2 استادیار، مؤسسه تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه نهال و بذر، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرج، ایران.

3 استادیار، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحدکرج، کرج، ایران

چکیده

به منظور بررسی پتانسیل تحمل به سرمای لاین‌های امیدبخش گندم نان، آزمایشی در قالب آلفا لاتیس با دو تکرار در سال زراعی 95-1394 در مؤسسه تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه نهال و بذر کرج اجرا شد. در این تحقیق شانزده لاین امیدبخش حاصل از آزمایش سازگاری اقلیم معتدل و دوازده لاین امیدبخش حاصل از آزمایش سازگاری اقلیم سرد همراه با ارقام شاهد از نظر تحمل به تنش سرما به روش تلفیقی (آزمایشگاهی و مزرعه‌ای) بررسی شدند. بوته‌های خوگرفته به سرما، در اوایل دی 1394 از مزرعه جمع‌آوری و میزان تحمل به سرما در آن‌ها با اندازه‌گیری LT50 (دمایی که در آن پنجاه درصد بوته‏ها بر اثر سرما از بین می‏روند) با استفاده از فریزر قابل­تنطیم تعیین شد. نتایج نشان داد که در بین لاین‌های اقلیم معتدل، هشت لاین و رقم بهاران ال‌تی‌پنجاه پایین‌تری نسبت به رقم پارسی (رقم شاهد اقلیم معتدل با ال‌تی‌پنجاه  °C6-) داشتند و پایین‌ترین LT50(°C12-) مربوط به لاین M-94-7 بود. در بین لاین‌های اقلیم سرد، هشت لاین LT50پایین‌تری نسبت به رقم میهن (رقم شاهد اقلیم سرد با LT50 °C12-)داشتند و پایین‌ترین LT50مربوط به لاین‌های C-94-11 و
C-94-13 با میزان°C 15- بود. تحمل به سرما در دو رقم حیدری (°C5/9-) و اروم (°C5/11-) کم‌تر و در رقم زارع (°C13-) بیش‌تر از رقم شاهد بود. شش لاین از لاین‌های اقلیم معتدل و نه لاین از لاین‌های اقلیم سرد ضمن داشتن LT50پایین‌تر (تحمل بیشتر به سرما)، عملکرد دانه بالاتری نسبت به ارقام شاهد (به ترتیب رقم پارسی و رقم میهن) داشتند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Cold Stress Tolerance and Some Agronomic Characteristics of Bread Wheat Promising Lines

نویسندگان [English]

  • N. Ahmadi 1
  • S. Sh. Jasemi 2
  • F. Aghayari 3
1 M. Sc. Student, Department of Crop Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran.
2 Assistant Professor, Seed and Plant Improvement Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization, Karaj, Iran.
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Crop Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran.
چکیده [English]

To evaluate the cold tolerance potential of bread wheat promising lines, an experiment was conducted based on the alpha-lattice design with two replications during 2015-16 at the Seed and Plant Improvement Institute, Karaj, Iran. In this study, 16 promising lines obtained from the adaptation trial of temperate agro- climatic zone, and 12 promising lines obtained from the adaptation trial of cold agro- climateic zone, were evaluated for cold stress tolerance using an integrated method (laboratory and field). The cold-acclimated plants were sampled from the field in the early January 2015, and the potential of cold strss tolerance in plants was determined by measuring LT50 (the temperature at which 50% of plants are killed) using a regulatable freezer. The results showed that among the temperate adapted lines, eight lines and cv. Baharan had a lower LT50 than Parsi (check cultivar) with LT50 = -6°C and the lowest LT50 (-12°C) was related to line M-94-7. Among the cold adapted lines, eight lines had a lower LT50 than Mihan (check cultivar) with LT50 = -12°C and the lowest LT50 (-15°C) was related to lines C-94-11 and C-94-13. Cold stress tolerance in cultivars Heydari (-9.5°C) and Orum
(-11.5°C) was lower and in Zarea (-13°C) was more than the cv. Mihan. Six lines from temperat agro- climatic zone and nine lines from cold agro- climatic zone had lower LT50 (cold tolerance), and higher grain yield than Parsi and Mihan, respectively.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Wheat
  • Cold stress
  • acclimatization
  • Grain yield
  • LT50

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