ویژگی‌های مورفولوژیک، محتوای پروتئین و ترکیب اسیدهای چرب چند ژنوتیپ‌ برتر گردو (Juglans regia L.) در شمال استان فارس

نویسندگان

1 گروه باغبانی تربیت مدرس

2 گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران

3 گروه اصلاح نباتات، دانشگاه کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران

چکیده

وجود مقادیر بالای اسیدهای چرب غیراشباع سبب شده تا گردو به عنوان یک محصول استراتژیک با ارزش غذائی و داروئی بالا در تغذیه انسان معرفی شود. در این تحقیق که در سال‌های 1391 تا 1394 انجام شد، ویژگی‌های مختلف مورفولوژیکی (در تمام این سال‌ها)و بیوشیمیائی (در دو سال 1393 و 1394) 9 ژنوتیپ گردو که در ارزیابی‌های قبلی در استان فارس به عنوان ژنوتیپ‌های برتر انتخاب شده بودند، مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. بر اساس نتایج به دست آمده، این ژنوتیپ‌ها دارای وزن میوه (36/19-20/13 گرم)، وزن مغز (52/9-13/7 گرم)، درصد مغز (92/57-89/46 درصد)، عادت باردهی جانبی (08/64-62/45 درصد) و رنگ مغز روشن بودند. مقادیر پروتئین، روغن و فنل کل موجود در مغز این ژنوتیپ‌ها به ترتیب 13/19-58/12 درصد، 72/70-83/54 درصد و 63/56-26/43 میلی‌گرم اسیدگالیک اکی‌والان بر گرم وزن خشک عصاره استخراج شده بود. اسید پالمیتیک (65/7-00/6 درصد)، اسید استئاریک (41/3-72/1 درصد)، اسید اولئیک (96/30-28/19 درصد)، اسید لینولئیک (05/59-37/47 درصد) و اسید لینولنیک (99/16-89/9 درصد)، اسیدهای چرب غالب این ژنوتیپ‌ها بودند. مقادیر بسیار کمی از اسید آراشیدونیک و اسید اروسیک نیز در برخی از ژنوتیپ‌ها اندازه‌گیری شد. درصد اسیدهای چرب غیراشباع با چند باند مضاعف (PUFA) به‌طور معنی‌داری بیشتر از اسیدهای چرب غیراشباع با یک باند مضاعف (MUFA) بود. بیشترین مقادیر اسیدهای چرب غیراشباع با یک و چند باند مضاعف به ترتیب در ژنوتیپ‌های FaEqHm1 و FaEqNs5 مشاهده و اندازه‌گیری شد و ژنوتیپ FaEqDm1 دارای بیشترین مقدار اسیدچرب اشباع و کمترین مقدار اسیدچرب غیراشباع بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Morphological Characteristics, Protein Contents and Fatty Acids Composition of some Walnut (Juglans regia L.) Superior Genotypes in the North of Fars Province

نویسندگان [English]

  • S Sarikhani 1
  • K. Arzani 2
  • Gh. Karimzadeh 3
  • A. Shojaeiyan 2
1 Agricultural Tarbiat Modares
2 Department of Horticultural Science, College of Agriculture, Tabriz Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
3 Department of Plant Breeding, College of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

High amound of unsaturated fatty acids in kernel, has made walnut as a strategic crop with high nutritional and medicial values in human nutrition. In the present study, carried out during years 2012 to 2015, morphological (in all years) and biochemical (in two years 2014 and 2015) characteristics of nine walnut genotypes which were selected as superior genotypes in former studied in Fars province, were investigated. Based on the results of morphological evaluations, these genotypes had high nut (13.20-19.36g) and kernel (7.13-9.52g) weight, kernel percentage (56.89-57.92%), lateral breeding (45.62-64.80%) and kernel color (light and extra light). Protein, oil and total phenol contents of kernel of the genotypes ranged from 12.58 to 19.13%, 54.83 to 70.72% and 43.26-56.63 mg GAE.g-1 DW extract, respectively. Palmitic (6.00-7.65%), stearic (1.72-3.41%), oleic (19.28-30.96%), linoleic (47.37-59.05) and linolenic (9.89-16.99%) acids were the predominant fatty acids in the walnut genotypes. Very small amount of arachidonic and erucic acids was also detected in some of the genotypes. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were significantly higher than monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). Accordingly, the highest amounts of PUFA and MUFA were observed in genotypes FaEqNs5 and FaEqHm1, respectively, and genotype FaEqDm1 had the highest amount of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and the lowest level of unsaturated fatty acid (UFA).

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • walnut
  • morohological traits
  • unsaturaled fatty acids
  • total phenol
  • oil percentage

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