بافت‌شناختی تنش اکسیداتیو و تولید گونه‌های فعال اکسیژن در مقابل پیشرفت عامل بیماری آتشک در ارقام گلابی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

پژوهشکده میوه‌های معتدله و سردسیری، مؤسسه تحقیقات علوم باغبانی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرج، ایران

چکیده

مقاومت به بیماری آتشک در ارقام گلابی به دو صورت پیشرفت کند بیماری در ارقام نیمه‌مقاوم و توقف سریع بیماری در ارقام مقاوم بروز می‌کند. با توجه به نقش موثر و دوگانه گونه‌های فعال اکسیژن (ROS)، به ویژه سه گونه سوپراکسید (O2•-)، پراکسیدهیدروژن (H2O2) و هیدروکسیل (OH•-) در ایجاد بیماری و دفاع علیه آن، در این تحقیق تولید این گونه‌های فعال اکسیژن در رقم مقاوم درگزی، رقم نیمه مقاوم هاروسوئیت (Harrow Sweet) و رقم حساس ویلیامز (Williams) در واکنش به حمله باکتری Erwinia amylovora در شرایط درون‌شیشه‌ای مقایسه شد. سرعت پیشرفت نکروز در شاخه‌چه‌های درون شیشه بر اساس میزان حساسیت رقم در شرایط گلخانه‌ای بود. در هر سه گونه فعال اکسیژن، توسعه بافتی از استوانه مرکزی به سرعت به صورت عمودی آغاز و به تدریج به صورت افقی در پارانشیم ساقه توسعه یافت. دو شاخص شدت و سرعت تولید گونه‌های فعال اکسیژن در پی حمله عامل بیماری منطبق بودند، ولی در رابطه با رادیکال سوپراکسید، ارقام تفاوت قابل توجهی نشان ندادند. با توجه به نقش بازدارنده پراکسید هیدروژن در برابر عامل بیماری، در دو رقم هاروسوئیت و ویلیامز، الگوی تولید و گسترش آن توجیه کننده میزان مقاومت در ارقام بود. همچنین در رقم مقاوم درگزی، بیش‌ترین تاخیر در تولید پراکسید هیدروژن تا 96 ساعت پس از مایه‌زنی مشاهده شد. بر اساس الگوی مشاهده شده تولید گونه‌های فعال اکسیژن، به نظر می‌رسد ارقام مختلف گلابی از مکانیسم‌های متفاوتی برای مقابله با عامل بیماری آتشک استفاده می‌کنند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Histology of Oxidative Stress and Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species Against Progress of Fire Blight Causal Agent in Pear Cultivars

نویسندگان [English]

  • H. Abdollahi
  • Z. Salehi
Temperate Fruits Research Center, Horticultural Sciences Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Resistance to fire blight disease in pears appears as slow disease progress in moderately resistant and sharp prevention of disease progress in resistant cultivars. Regarding to the importance and dual roles of reactive oxygen species (ROS), especially superoxide (O2•-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hydroxyl (OH•-) in disease development and defense against its progress, in this research, generation of these species of active oxygen were studied in pear cultivars Dar Gazi (resistant), Harrow Sweet (moderately resistant) and Williams (susceptible) after inoculation with Erwinia amylovora in in vitro conditions. The necrosis progress rates in in vitro shootlets were according to the disease susceptibility of cultivars and were comparable with the greenhouse results. For all species of active oxygen, first traces was observed in central cylinder of the in vitro shootlets in vertical direction, followed by horizontal expansion of active oxygen species in stem parenchyma. Two indices of velocity and severity of each singular active oxygen species were correspondence. Comparison of superoxide generation showed similar rates in all tested cultivars, while based on the deterrent role of H2O2 on disease progress, H2O2 generation in cultivar Harrow Sweet was earlier and higher than other cultivars. In pear cultivar Dar Gazi, H2O2 generation was postponed up to 96h after inoculation. According to the results, it seems that pear cultivars use different strategies for defense against fire blight invasion.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Pear cultivars
  • Erwinia amylovora
  • necrosis
  • hydroxyl
  • hydrogen peroxide
  • superoxide

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